How to Write a Scientific Research Paper

scientific research writing

Get tips on how to write a scientific research paper from us. Scientific investigations start with a specific research question and hypothesis to answer this question. It should be clear, precise, and directly aim to answer the research question. A strong idea is a fundamental part of any scientific research.

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What is scientific research?

Scientific Research is a neutral, systematic, planned, and multiple-step process that uses facts to advance knowledge that is yet to exist in literature. It can be classified as observational or experimental concerning data collection techniques, descriptive or analytical to causality, and prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional concerning time.

Writing Scientific Research Paper

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1. Ask a Question

Scientific research starts when you ask a question about something that you have observed

2. Do Background Research

Rather than starting from scratch when putting together a plan for answering your question. Instead, you would use the resources available such as a library and internet research to help you find the best and ascertain that you don't repeat mistakes from your predecessors.

3. Construct a Hypothesis

A hypothesis is an educated guess about how things work. It is simply an attempt to answer your question with an explanation that can be tested. A reasonable assumption allows you to make a prediction then, begin by stating both your hypothesis and the resulting prediction you will be trying.

4. Test Your Hypothesis

The experiment tests whether your prediction is accurate and whether the hypothesis is supported or not. Your investigation needs to be fair with no manipulation. A proper test is conducted by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same.

It would be best to repeat your experiments several times to ensure that the first result was not an accident.

5. Collect data

You can also collect more data and information by using qualitative and quantitative methods of data analysis. This may help more weight to your research and give guidance to what the outcome might be.

6. Analyze Your Data and Draw a Conclusion

Once your experiment is complete, collect your data and analytics to see if they support your hypothesis or not.

7.  Communicate Your Results

After you are done with the experiment, you need to conclude by drawing a conclusion and explaining your results. It should be done in an intensive manner that ensures the person reading your work entirely agrees with your findings or can use them as a base.

Scientific Research Example

Get Scientific Research Examples from experts meeting your deadline and instruction. This section analyzes the qualities a Scientific Paper has to embody.

Objectivity

Scientific knowledge is objective; it means the ability to see and accept facts as they are. To be objective, one has to protect oneself against one's prejudices and preferences. It requires one to set aside all kinds of subjective considerations and prejudices.

Verifiable

Science rests on sensory data, that is, data collected through our senses. Scientific knowledge is based on verifiable evidence; these are concrete objective observations so that other observers can observe, weigh, or measure the same phenomena to verify its accuracy.

Ethical neutrality

Science is ethically neutral as it only seeks knowledge. However, how this knowledge will be used will be determined by the values of a society. Knowledge can be used for different purposes. For example, learning about atomic energy can cure diseases or wage a nuclear war.

Systematic exploration

A scientific investigation adopts a specific sequential procedure or a research design to collect and analyze data about the study. In general, this includes some scientific steps: formulation of hypotheses, a compilation of facts, analysis of facts and generalization, and scientific prediction.

Reliable or reliable

Scientific knowledge occurs under the prescribed circumstances multiple times. It is replicable in the indicated cases in any place and at any time. Conclusions are not based on casual memories as they are not very reliable.

 

Accuracy

Scientific knowledge is precise, and this means truth or correction of a statement or description of things with exact words as they are without jumping to conclusions.

Abstraction

Science proceeds on a plane of abstraction. A general scientific principle is highly abstract. He is not interested in giving a realistic image.

Predictability

Scientists describe the phenomena that have been studied but also try to explain and predict. Social sciences have much lower predictability compared to the natural sciences. The most obvious reasons, in this case, is the complexity of the subject and the insufficiency in control, etc.

Classification of scientific research

Research is classified into two main classes:

1.    Fundamental research

2.    Applied research

 Basic and applied researches are generally of two types: standard research and revolutionary research. In any particular field, standard analysis is performed in accordance with a set of rules, concepts, guidelines, and procedures called a paradigm. The scientists working in that field regard it. Additionally, the primary and applied research can be quantitative or qualitative or even both known as mixed research.

Data collection methods

Scientists classify data collection methods as observational or experimental depending on data collection techniques utilized. The body of Science also describes data collection as descriptive or analytical with respect to causality. Finally, scientists group data collection as prospective, retrospective, or cross-sectional with respect to time.

Observational

Observation is a way of gathering data by watching behavior, events or noting characteristics of subjects in their natural setting. Observations can be overt where everyone knows they are being observed or covert where no one knows they are being observed and the observer is concealed.

Experimental

An experiment is a controlled study in which the researcher attempts to understand cause-and-effect between relationships. This study is controlled because the researcher controls how subjects are assigned to groups and which treatments each group receives.

Causality Relationships

Descriptive

Descriptive research refers to the methods that describe the characteristics of the variables under study. This is a part of quantitative market research or social research study, which involves conducting survey research while using quantitative variables.

Analytical

This is a specific type of research involving critical thinking skills. It evaluates facts and information relative to the research conducted. Students, doctors, and psychologists, use analytical research during studies to find relevant information.

Based on relationships with time

Retrospective

A retrospective study looks backward and examines exposures to suspected risk or protection factors in relation to an outcome established at the start of the study. Most sources of error due to confounding and bias are more common in retrospective studies than in prospective studies; hence are often criticized. In this, the odds ratio provides an estimate of relative risk.

Prospective

A prospective study for outcomes usually involves taking a cohort of subjects and watching them over a long period. The development of interest should be expected; otherwise, the number of results observed will be too small to be statistically meaningful. All efforts should be made to avoid bias. They usually have fewer potential sources of bias and confounding.

Cross-sectional

A cross-sectional study involves looking at data from a population at one specific point in time. They are observational, known as descriptive research, meaning that you can't use them to determine the cause of something.

Based on medium on which research is applied

Clinical

Clinical research is the study of health and illness. It is the way we learn how to prevent, diagnose and treat disease. It involves human participants and helps translate basic research done in labs into new treatments and information to benefit patients.

Laboratory

Laboratory research is research conducted in a setting specifically designed for specific research. The researcher manipulates a specific factor under study in a tightly controlled investigation. This determines if such manipulation generates a change in the subjects. The researcher places and selects the subjects in laboratory research systematically. They usually know that they are participating in a research study.

Social Descriptive Research

This is used to describe the characteristics of a population or phenomenon being studied. It does not answer questions about how or why the features occurred. The parts used to describe the situation or populations are usually some definite scheme, also known as social descriptive categories

This article deals with descriptive research

Descriptive Research Methods

Descriptive research Methods refer to the methods that describe the characteristics of the variables under a particular study. This methodology focuses on answering questions relating to "what" rather than the "why" of the research subject. The primary focus of this is to describe the nature of the demographics under study. It is called an observational research method as none of the variables in the survey is influenced during the research process.

It includes the following

Case Series

Case series, also known as a clinical series, is a medical research study that tracks subjects with a known exposure, such as patients who have received a similar treatment. It may be consecutive or non-consecutive.

Case series have a descriptive study design and do not involve hypothesis testing to look for evidence of cause and effect. 

Surveillance studies

This is defined as activities that allow a public health authority to identify, monitor, assess, or investigate potential risks

Case Report

A case report is a detailed report that usually describes an unusual or novel occurrence. It may also contain a literature review of other reported cases. They provide feedback on clinical practice guidelines and offer a framework for early effectiveness signals, adverse events, and cost. They can be shared for medical, scientific, or educational purposes.

Analytical research

Analytical research is a specific type of research that involves critical thinking skills and. The evaluation of facts and information relative to the research being conducted. A variety of people, including students, doctors, and psychologists, use analytical research during studies to find the most relevant information. Analytical research includes:

Observational studies

An observational study draws references from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the researcher's control. One joint observational study is about the possible effect of a treatment on subjects. This contrasts with experiments, such as randomized controlled trials, where each issue is assigned to a treated group or a control group. Observational studies, for lacking an assignment mechanism, naturally present difficulties for inferential analysis. Observational studies include:

 

Cohort studies

Cohort studies are medical research used to investigate disease causes and establish links between risk factors and health outcomes. Studies are planned and carried out over a future period. Retrospective cohort studies look at data that already exist and try to identify risk factors for particular conditions. Interpretations are limited because the researchers cannot go back and gather missing data. Long-term studies are sometimes called longitudinal studies.

Case Control

Case-control studies were historically born out of interest in disease etiology. The basis of the case-control study is similar to taking a history and physical; the diseased patient is questioned and examined, and elements from this history taking are knitted together to reveal factors that predisposed the patient to the disease.

Reasons of practicality and feasibility factor in the study design typically dictate whether a cohort study or case-control study is appropriate. 

Cross-sectional Research

the cross-sectional study involves looking at data from a population at one specific point in time. Cross-sectional studies are observational and are known as descriptive research, not causal or relational, meaning that you cannot use them to determine the cause of something, a disease.

Interventional research

Interventional research, also called experimental studies, involves a researcher interceding as part of the study design. The study designs may be classified by the role played by time during data collection, either retrospective or prospective. Intervention research includes:

Quasi-sectional research

The quasi prefix means resembling thus the quasi-experimental research resembles experimental study but is not authentic empirical research.

Clinical research

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Scientific Research Format

This section delves into the Scientific Research Format advocated by Scientists in the world. This article is helpful in that sense.

TITLE

Make your title specific enough to describe the paper's contents, but not so technical that only specialists will understand.

AUTHORS

The person who did the work and wrote the paper is generally listed as the first author of a research paper.

ABSTRACT

An abstract, or summary, is published with a research article, giving the reader a preview of what is to come. It can also be published separately in bibliographical sources. Your abstract should be one paragraph, which summarizes the paper's purpose, methods, results, and conclusions. Do not use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes.

INTRODUCTION

It summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment.  If you have a complicated protocol, it may be helpful to include a diagram, table, or flowchart to explain the methods used. Do not put results in this section instead;, you may have preliminary results used to design the main experiment you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations.

RESULTS

This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate. You do not have to include all the data. Use proper methods of showing data.

TABLES AND GRAPHS

1. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table. Don't use a table or chart cause if you can summaries the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is unnecessary.

DISCUSSION

1. Highlight the most significant results,

2. End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments or made other significant contributions

REFERENCES (LITERATURE CITED)

There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:

1. Cite the literature in the appropriate places:

2. List citations in alphabetical order

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